Something from Nothing : A tiny fluctuation in a “false vacuum” for a tiny instant, consistent with quantum mechanics, inflated into the universe that we see today. This scientific model does not require the “Will of God” to explain how it all happened. This “How” is far closer to the Indian Puranic accounts than it is to Biblical Puranic accounts.
(Neither Science nor Puranas answer “Why?”)
At First, there was Nothing, Not Even Time and and Not Even Space. “Don’t imagine outer space without matter in it. Imagine no space at all and no matter at all.”
Then from 10 to the power of minus 37 seconds to 10 to the power of minus 34 seconds, the Universe Inflated at a rate that kept doubling .
“The primordial “stuff” of inflation, is very likely a spontaneous creation, a no-strings gift that boiled out of absolutely nowhere by means of an utterly random but nonetheless scientifically possible process. The universe according to Alan Guth began in the era of quantum gravity, a time when all four forces of the universe—gravity, electromagnetism, the strong (nuclear) and weak forces — may have been unified. Energy boiling out of this unstable stew grew during the brief inflationary period at an ever-doubling rate, then decayed into an electron-quark soup as those forces began splitting apart. The soup’s fundamental particles combined into ever-more-complex forms as the universe cooled and expanded. ”
“Quantum theory also holds that a vacuum, like atoms, is subject to quantum uncertainties. This means that things can materialize out of the vacuum, although they tend to vanish back into it quickly. While this phenomenon has never been observed directly, measurements of the electron’s magnetic strength strongly imply that it is real and happening in the vacuum of space even now.”
“Theoretically, anything—a dog, a house, a planet—can pop into existence by means of this quantum quirk, which physicists call a vacuum fluctuation. Probability, however, dictates that pairs of subatomic particles—one positive, one negative, so that conservation laws are not violated—are by far the most likely creations and that they will last extremely briefly, typically for only 10-21 second. The spontaneous, persistent creation of something even as large as a molecule is profoundly unlikely.”
“The universe seems to be extremely “flat,” which means matter, velocity, and gravity all balance to put space-time precisely on the dividing line between a “closed” and an “open” geometry. In a closed universe, space-time curves back on itself, such that light beams that start out parallel will actually meet. In an open universe the beams will diverge. The value of omega describes the ratio between the average density of matter in space and what that density would need to be to make the universe perfectly flat. If omega equals one, the universe is flat.”
“”According to classic Big Bang theory, as the universe evolves, the value of omega is always driven away from one. So if the universe starts out with an omega value of less than one, omega gets rapidly smaller as the universe ages. If it starts with omega greater than one, omega gets rapidly larger. The fact that omega is very close to one today—microwave background radiation measurements indicate it is within 10 percent of one—means that, according to classic Big Bang theory, one second after the bang, omega would have had to be between .999999999999999 and 1.000000000000001″
“Guth realized that omega did not have to be preposterously fine-tuned from the start. An exponentially expanding early universe, which he would come to call the inflationary universe, would drive omega toward one, not away from it, making a flat universe inevitable.”
“Return to that primordial vacuum, a boiling stew from which pairs of positive and negative subatomic particles bubble into being for the briefest of instants. Inflationary theory suggests that what erupted was a “false vacuum,” a peculiar form of matter predicted to exist by many particle theorists.”
“A false vacuum is characterized by a repulsive gravitational field, one so strong it can explode into a universe. Another peculiarity of the false vacuum is that it does not “thin out” during expansion as, say, a gas does—the density of the energy within it remains constant even as it grows. So the false vacuum’s expansion, accelerating exponentially as its repulsive force compounded, actually created vast quantities of ever-doubling energy, which decayed into a seething plasma of particles such as electrons, positrons, and neutrinos. As the early universe went along doubling every microsecond, the stuff in it doubled, too—out of nowhere. The electrons, positrons, and neutrinos became a sort of hot soup, which 300,000 years later neutralized to form simple atoms. The simple atoms, like hydrogen, helium, and lithium, were ripped apart and crushed together to form more complex, heavier atoms inside stars. Exploded into space by supernovas, they became the matter we see—and are—today.”
“The initial bit of false vacuum required by Guth’s calculations turned out to be mind-bendingly small: A patch one-billionth the size of a proton would do. And the required period of exponential growth was very short. In perhaps just 10 to the power of minus 34 seconds, the universe expanded by 25 orders of magnitude, to roughly the size of a marble, an increase equivalent to a pea growing to the size of the Milky Way.”
“The inflationary process, would push omega toward one with incredible swiftness. The reason is best expressed by analogy. The universe appears to be virtually flat for the same reason that Earth’s surface appears to be virtually flat to a person standing on that surface. The very fabric of space becomes relatively “stretched” so that in as few as 100 doublings in size, its curvature is effectively canceled.”
“According to Einstein’s theory of relativity, the energy of a gravitational field is negative. The energy of matter, however, is positive. So the entire universe-creation scenario could unfold without breaking conservation-of-energy laws. The positive energy of all matter in the universe could be precisely counterbalanced by the negative energy of all the gravity in the universe.”
“Human beings have evolved to survive in this universe, not necessarily to be able to understand it. We are approaching a scenario for the creation of the universe that is compatible with the laws of physics“
“The decay of the false vacuum—which, according to the inflation theory, created the matter of our universe—does not happen all at once. While some regions decay into universes, other regions keep expanding and creating other universes. Residual false vacuum from the creation of those universes creates still others, indefinitely. Linde and Vilenkin call this “the eternally existing, self-reproducing inflationary universe.”
“Any cosmological theory that does not lead to the eternal reproduction of universes will be considered as unimaginable as a species of bacteria that cannot reproduce.”
Consolidated : Indian History – A New Construct
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