“The Standard Model answers many of the questions about the structure and stability of matter with its six types of quarks, six types of leptons, and four forces. But the Standard Model is not complete; there are still many unanswered questions.
Why do we observe matter and almost no antimatter if we believe there is a symmetry between the two in the universe? What is this “dark matter” that we can’t see that has visible gravitational effects in the cosmos? Why can’t the Standard Model predict a particle’s mass? Are quarks and leptons actually fundamental, or made up of even more fundamental particles?” Source
A force is the effect on a particle due to the presence of other particles. The interactions of a particle include all the forces that affect it, but also include decays and annihilations that the particle might go through. Sometimes the words are used interchangeably, though that is not very accurate. We have discussed electromagnetic carriers (photons) already a bit and the standard model does not handle gravity well, so let us look at strong and weak forces.
To understand strong forces, we have to understand quarks.
Quarks have a kind of charge called color charge that has nothing to do with color. This is in addition to their electromagnetic charge.
While protons and electrons have electric charges of magnitude “1″. Quarks have electric charges of magnitude 2/3 and -1/3.
Quarks always exist in composite particles with a net integer electric charge and a net zero colour charge. These composite particles are called Hadrons.
A proton is such a composite particle. It is made of 2 quarks of 2/3 electric charge and one quark of charge -1/3.
A neutron is made of 2 quarks of -1/3 electric charge and one quark of charge 2/3.
Since protons (uud) and neutrons (udd) have three quarks each they are called the “baryon” type of hadrons.
Gluons (a kind of bosons) are the Strong-Force carrier particles.
“Three of the fundamental forces result from the exchange of force carrier particles, which belong to a broader group called ‘bosons’. Matter particles transfer discrete amounts of energy by exchanging bosons with each other. Each fundamental force has its own corresponding boson particle – the strong force is carried by the ‘gluon’, the electromagnetic force is carried by the ‘photon’, and the ‘W and Z bosons’ are responsible for the weak force. Although not yet found, the ‘graviton’ should be the corresponding force-carrying particle of gravity.” (Source)
Quarks carry colour charge, anti-quarks carry anti colour charge and gluons carry colour as well as anti-colour charge. Colour Charge is conserved in interactions just as anti-colour charge. Colour charged particles cannot be found individually.
“The quarks in a given hadron madly exchange gluons. This is what “keeps the quark together”. If you separate colour charged particles they tend to snap back together or the bond will break! The strong force between the quarks in one proton and the quarks in another proton is strong enough to overwhelm the repulsive electromagnetic force. This is called the residual strong interaction, and it is what “glues” the nucleus together.” (Source)
The only matter around us that is stable is made up of the smallest quarks and leptons, which cannot decay any further.
When a quark or lepton changes type (a muon changing to an electron, for instance) it is said to change flavor. All flavor changes are due to the weak interaction.
The carrier particles of the weak interactions are the W+, W-, and the Z particles. The W’s are electrically charged and the Z is neutral.” (Source)
- Time : Past, Present and Future : Bhuta Bhavya Bhavan Nathah Vishnuh
- Time : Why study time ? : “Kaalah Aham – I am Time” – Krishna
- Time : Kalakantha, kalamurthi, kalagni, kalanasana, Siva : Markandeya : Maghamahatmya
- Time and Space : Are Time and Space “side-effect” of matter? Is Space empty? or full of some”thing” else?
- Time, Matter, Energy and Consciousness : Kaala, Sat, Sakthi, Purusha/Devi
- Life : Pranadah, Pranah, Jivanah, Vishnuh! : What is Life? In science and sanskrit texts : Eating.
- Consciousness : Pragnya, Chitta, Purusha/Devi : in Science and Sanskrit Texts
- Time : Movement : Motion: : Jagat : Charaachara : Understanding Devi and Purusha as Movement and Time.
- Light : Lakshmi : Vishnu
- Light : Bits of Light Energy (Photons) : suvarna rajata srajaa Lakshmi : mass energy equivalence, sat sakti equivalence, advaita, sat cit ananda
- Particles : The Very Small (sukshma) and The Very Fast (vega) : Photons : Lakshmi, Devi, Sarva Chaitanya, Atman
- Time : Dreams : Precognition : Cognition : Memory : A Rambling Post.
- Fire : A chemical reaction : Agni : Electron Motion : Photon emission : Lakshmi : Sri Suktham
- Light : Stereotypes : Wave, Particle Duality (Dvaita) : Lakshmi Devi and Me
- Touch : ‘Untouchable’ Universe : Pushing : Colliding : Electromagnetic Force Carrier Particles : Photons : Lakshmi Devi holds the Universe together!
- Light : ‘Look’ at an electron and it changes its state!
- Particles : Accelerators : Measuring really small things
- Particles : The Standard Model : Strong and Weak Forces : What holds the nucleus together? : Particles changing into other particles : Kamarupadhari particles.
- Why should the speed of light be same in all non accelerating frames of reference?