- narasimha purANam (Links to previous posts)
sUta said :
O vidvan! It is said, with devotion (upcAra), that the paternal grandfather of the world, the eternal bhagavAn brahma, known by the name nArAyaNa, just came to be – utpannah.
In his own reckoning his life span is for one hundred years. This is called ‘para’.
Half of that is parArdha.
O sinless one, I told you about the time-form (kAla sva rUpa) of viSNu, by which you can know how time-measurements of all other beings animate and inanimate are explained.
1 nimEsa = (defined elsewhere as the time it takes to blink)
18 nimESAs = 1 kASTa
30 kASTAs = 1 kalA
3 kalAs = 1 muhUrtam
30 muhurtAs = 1 ahOrAtra (day + night)
If we take day +night = approx 24 hours, (there are variations on the length of day that range from daily to seasonal in scale, so that the true length of day can vary greatly from day to day, over multi-year time scales.)
1 muhUrtam = 48 minutes (it is funny how modern muhUrtams for weddings are treated as if they are exactly 1 second long – I wonder why), 1 kalA (~16 min), 1 kASTa (~32 secs), 1 nimEsa = ~ 1.8 secs.
30 ahOrAtrAs = 1 mAsa (month)
Each mAsa has two pakSAs of 15 ahOrAtrAs each.
6 mAsAs = 1 ayana : dakSiNa and uttara (see also : Uttarayanam: Shift from Makara Sankramanam to Dhanur Masam)
The dakSina-ayana is the night of the dEvAs and the uttara-ayana is their day.
2 ayanAs = 1 varSa
1 mAsa = 1 ahOrAtra of the pitRs (Fathers)
1 vatsara (varSa, year) of humans = 1 ahOrAtra of the vasUs and others, a divine day and night.
1 divine year = 360 human years.
1000 divine varSAs = 1 yuga consiting of trEta and others.
12000 divine years = 1 caturyugam., consisting of
- 4000 divine years, plus a sandhya 400 years before and after is satya (kRta) yuga.
- 3000 divine years plus a sandhya 300 years before and after is trEtA yuga.
- 2000 divine years plus a sandhya 200 years before and after is dvApara yuga.
- 1000 divine years plus a sandhya 100 years before and after is kaliyuga. = (1000+100+100)*360 = 432000 years.
A caturyugam has kRta, trEta, dvApara and kali. A thousand caturyugAs are 1 day of brahma.
There are 14 manus to a day of brahma.
The saptarSIs, manUs and dEvAs – s’akra (Indra) and others flow out (sRjyantE) and and are destroyed at the same time.
71+ caturyugAs form a manvantara the period of the saptarSIs, manUs and dEvAs.
Translated by Satya Sarada Kandula