Also, known as Aditya, Surya is generally known as the eldest son of Aditi and Kasyapa. His brothers were also known as Adityas.
(Adityas : As per the Linga Purana : Aditi’s sons were the twelve Adityas, named Indra, Dhata, Bhaga, Tvashta, Mitra, Varuna, Aryama, Vivasvan, Savita, Pusha, Amshuman and Vishnu. Vivasvan is father of Vaivaswatha Manu. Bhaga, Mitra, Savita, Pusha, Vivaswan and Amshuman are sometimes taken to be the names of Surya Deva. Dhata is sometimes used as a name of Brahma and sometimes Vishnu. Tvastha and Indra also appear in Parsi sacred texts.
As per Prof. P.L. Bhargava, the number of Adityas varies in different sukthas and mandalas of the Rg Veda :
- Varuna, Mitra, Aryaman (1, 136.3 ; 7, 40.4, 8;7,51.2;7, 60.4 and 5; 8,47.9; 8,67.2;)
- In 8,52.7, Indra is called the 4th Aditya In 2, 27 Varuna, Mitra, Aryaman and Indra are mentioned together in many mantras.
- Mitra, Aryaman, Bhaga, Tuvijata, Varuna, Daksha and Amsa in 2, 27.1
- Varuna, Mitra, Aryaman, Indra, Savita in some sukthas
- In 10, 72.8 it is said that Aditi had 7 sons first and then the 8th son Marthanda later. Marthanda which means “born from a dead egg” refers to our sun which is a second generation star.)
When you say the son of Surya Deva (the sun), most people think of the tragic hero Karna.
When there was a conflict between Indra‘s son Arjuna and Surya’ s son Karna, Surya merely warned Karna in a dream about Indra’s plot, whereas Indra in the guise of a Brahmin, actively took away Karna’s Kavacha-Kundalas – Surya’s protective gift at birth. So on the one hand people blame Indra for interfering and on the other Surya for not doing enough!
When there was a conflict between Indra’s son Vali and Surya’s son Sugriva, neither of them stepped in to help and in that round it was Surya’s son who won. Sugriva was an exceptional warrior and friend of Rama, while Arjuna was Krishna‘s friend.
It was Vishnu as the friend who once granted victory to Indra’s son, Arjuna as Krishna and once granted victory to Surya’s son, Sugreeva as Rama.
Friends matter more than fathers some times!
And father who grants you good looks and intelligence and does not support you through conflicts reminds me of our father Surya. He has given us life and and daily energy and expects us to take care of ourselves!
Vaiwaswatha Manu, the Dravidian king and ancestor of Rama and Krishna, was the son of Vivaswan, which is another name for Surya! Vaiwaswatha Manu was also known as Satyavrata manu. Incidentally, it was Vishnu as the Matsya Avataram who saved Vaiwaswatha Manu.
s’ani (Saturn) is a son of Surya. He represents Karmic influences in Astrology. And many people worship Surya when they want relief from the periods of Sani in their life. While some traditions hold that Sani’s mother was Chaaya, the shadow of Surya’s wife Sandhya (dawn), one hindi tv serial holds that it is Sandhya who is the mother. Sani periods are pay up time and most people want to have as little to do with this lord of Karma as possible.
Yama is the best son of Surya as far as I know. He is The Lord of Dharma. Yama in yoga is the first step of self-control. The Yamaha you drive around is named after him. Yama is worshipped in China, Japan and Kerala and has strong connections to the South of India. Mudrarakshasa has an episode, where in a person goes around with a picture of Yama telling people of his greatness. (mahima). This custom is followed for Sani in the south.
Much of the Dharma we have today has roots in Yama’s Dharma Sastras. Bhishma quotes Yama. There are Rg Veda Mantras in which Yama tells his sister Yami why a brother may not marry a sister. (By the way, Yama is against dowry system.)
Much of the Dharma we have today has roots in Yama’s Dharma Sastras.
Telugu movies generally make light fun of Yama as in the movies Devanthakudu, Yamagola and Yamadonga (same basic story in all three)., and he is seen only in the role of the person who judges you at the time of death and decides where you will go. Some people and traditions even confuse him with mRtyu – death and kAla – time (death due to time).
Unlike this in the movie Sri Manjunatha, you see the devotee Manjunatha welcoming Yama as the one’s best friend. So I like the song. The character Manjunatha is played by the Kannada Actor incidentally named Arjun! The one you see with the famous noose in the video is Siva and not Yama, since Manjunatha was an an exceptional devotee. (As Indra came for Sravana Kumara, Yama came for Markandeya). Really lesser mortals get only messengers or dUtas.
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