In this article
- I propose that the Vishnu Sahasranamam (from Mahabharata) may be accepted as a definition of God from a Hindu standpoint.
- I share the health benefits of parayanam.
- I discuss some of my ideas about theism, atheism and God. God as defined by the Vishnu Sahasranamam exists as much as we do.
- I provide the sanskrit text for the dhyana slokas and the 1000 names and youtube clips with accurate chanting.
- Then I share translation by Kisari Mohan Ganguli and Sri P. R. Ramachander.
The Importance of the Meaning of Vishnu Sahasranamam
Why should scholars learn Vishnu Sahasranamam and its meaning?
The Vishnu Sahasranamam summarises in 1000 names all the attributes and known/deduced facts about God. Students and scholars of Indian philosophy who start with Vishnu Sahasranamam along with Sankaracharya‘s commentary can at one short go understand what the concept of God is in Hinduism.
- The Upanishads form the Vedanta that explains the Vedas.
- The Bhagavad Gita summarises these Upanishads.
- The Vishnu Sahasranamam summarises what the Bhagavad Gita and Upanishads, and Puranas and other ancient texts say about God. It is your shortcut to illumination.
Adi Sankaracharya’s commentary gives us all the references behind each name that can be found in all the other sacred texts.. and it is a gripping work with each explanation shining like 1000 watt torch in a deep dark cave. It is a mini-treatise on Advaita. It is said that Adi Sankaracharya, wanted to first write a commentary on the Lalita Sahasranama, but his student kept bringing the Vishnu Sahasranama instead, 3 times in a row. Then he decided to comment on this first following a divine injunction.
The author of the Vishnu Sahasranamam.
In the Mahabharata, Yudhisthira learns the Vishnu Sahasranama, from his dying grandfather Bhishma, among a host of other matters. Just as the Bhagavad Gita is Krishnena Kathita and Vyasena Grathita, similarly, Vishnu Sahasranamam is Bhishmena Kathita and Vyasena Grathita. So Veda Vyasa reported what Bhishma said, in beautiful, awesome poetry.
The benefits of Parayanam.
- Even those who do not know the meaning will get the pranayama benefits of parayanam ie the health and spiritual benefits that come from breath control. While not exactly a tongue-twister, still it the sounds themselves are perfectly arranged to make a very good poetic reading.
- There are also karmic benefits of chanting the Vishnu Sahasranama like protecting you from trouble, granting your wishes enabling to attain your life’s goal. It is sat-karma or punya karyam.
- Vishnu Sahasranama recitation can help you balance your chakras.
- Vishnu Sahasranama : Chanting : pArAyaNam (Audio)
- Vishnu Sahasranama Chanting
- Abhyasa : dhyana and vishnu sahasranama
- abhyAsa : Vishnu Sahasranama Chanting after a long gap!
- Vishnu Sahasranamam : Chanting is better than hearing
- Vishnu Sahasranama : For advaitins, it is an excellent way to know your Self!
Theists, Atheists and God
Every human being has some inner conception of God, formed and fuelled by their selective interpretations of environment, experiences and temperament. Some then take the position that God (as per their definition) does not exist. We define them as atheists. Some take the position that God (as per their definition) exists. We define these as theists.
Even among theists, there is no common definition of God, and often no tolerance for the definitions of others.
The mata traya of middle-eastern religions each have a different perception of God. 2 of these 3 middle-eastern religious views now dominate the world, numbers, money and power wise. And they have been fighting violently with each other for about 1500 years, killing and/or converting other people to their point-of-view. The third and oldest of these three were sent in bulk to gas chambers as recently as half a century ago. After thinking about the matter I realized that those religions advocate compassion only to those of their own faith. To those who are not of their faith, they advocate conversion, contempt, termination, slavery and a vent for all their negative emotions.
Western Atheists are in general those who reject God as defined in the middle-eastern religions.
In my view the Vishnu Sahasranama may be taken as the Hindu Definition of God since it is based on Vedas, Upanishads and Puranas. It is a summary document.
Is it even possible to deny the existence of God as defined in the Vishnu Sahasranamam?
Viswam, Vishnuh, Vashatkarah : Vishnu and the Universe.
The first name “Viswam” means – the expanding universe.
If you accept that the Universe exists, then you and everything you around you constitute Vishnu, Bhagwan, God.
If you accept a real universe then you are theist by this definition.
The second name “Vishnu” means – that which is present every where.
To our knowledge, space and time are present everywhere, the tiny particles defined by physics are everywhere.
If you think every”thing” is located in a vast “nothing”, then that “nothing” (space) is Vishnu.
I have no trouble in accepting that there is Vishnu. And I have great joy and thrill in wondering about it.
The third name “Vashat kara” means – That for which the word vashat is uttered in yagnyas.
Its telling me that yagnyas are performed for Viswam, Vishnuh, . yes of course they are.
The fourth name is bhuta-bhavya-bhavat-prabhuh – that means the lord of the past, present and future.
To me this means that God is a) either the master of all events or b) the master of time itself
Atheists can argue here. They can say there is time but it has no master, there are events but there is no master.
To which theists can say Krishna said, ‘aham kaalah’.. “I am time” in the Gita, when explaining the nature of God.
If I accept that time exists, and if I define God as time, then I can accept that God exists.
If I accept that space exists and I define God as space, then I can accept that God exists.
If I can accept space-time and universe and I define these as God, then I can accept that God exists.
The fifth name is bhutakrut ie that which created all beings (things that are).
An atheist could jump on this idea and say they don’t believe in a “creator or creater” if they visualise a chap in flowing robes possibly bearded…
When I think of Viswam, Vishnu and Kaala as God ie when I think of the Universe, Space and Time as God and all that is is a result of these things, I have no problem with the name bhutakrt as a definiton of an attribute of God or in the existence of such a God.
The sixth name is bhutabhrut ie that which bears (or carries) all beings (things that are).
The universe bears (carries) us all. Acceptable to me.
The seventh name is bhaavah.
That which is.
Eighth : bhutaatma : the self all beings (things that are).
If someone imagines an aatma as a ghostly light in the shape of an outline of the being, then another someone can say such a thing does not exist.
If you see aatma as the self the “I” ness of a being the consciousness of a being, then there is no problem in accepting that it exists.
Then some may argue that “all beings do not possess consciousness” and “those beings possess only individual consciousness not a universal consciousness”.
To me this definition says simply that such consciousness or “I”ness as a being possesses, that is Vishnu, that is God.
So now I have the universe, space-time, the cause of things, the bearer of things, that which is and consciousness are all (attributes of) God.
Ninth : Bhuta Bhavanah.
The concept of all things.
These 9 names are given in the first sloka (couplet) of the Vishnu Sahasranama.. and we understand that God in Hinduism, is the name for that which is, the “sat”, the “real”.
By definition God is “that which is” in Hinduism, so you can’t argue that it is not. It is called “tat” or “brahman” in the upanishads and bhagavad gita.
The difficulty does not lie there at all.
The questions are related to our relationship with “That Reality” :
a) Should one pray to such a God? Should one pray to “Reality” to “Sat”? If one does, will “That” respond? Does it make a difference?
b) If “tat” responds Will “Tat” respond to sounds such as Veda Mantras, to meditation, to love, to admiration, to music, to dance, to emotion, to people, to their plights?
c) Can “Tat” play favorites?
d) Can “Tat” get angry?
e) Will “tat” punish a father for not getting his daughter married or a widow for re-marrying? Does “tat” set store by any dharma sastras that people or other animals set for themselves? Does “tat” care which side wins a war?
f) Can “Tat” be controlled, pleaded with or negotiated with?
A few personal answers :
Of course the universe (God) will respond and react to us.. at some scale., we are a part of it (Tat).
Prayer works on our consciousness at the very least, and that is definitely a part of the universe and “not outside of it”. It influences, at the very least, our own mind and actions and those close to us.
Yes, your society will punish you for violating its rules if it can and your society is part of the Universe or Tat.
“Tat” is the universe, space time, consciousness, the “I”ness of things.. it stands to reason that you can interact with it, plead, control and negotiate with the bits of it that allow such behavior. But not other bits of it .. like gravity for example?
Can sounds influence the “Tat”? Loudspeaker prayers from all places irritate the “neighbours” part of your universe…
Properly chanted Veda Mantras in my hearing delight me.. I am a part of the universe.. my consciousness is bhutama.. and that is God.. yes.. you can delight God with Veda Mantras.
Soham Asmi. Tat Tvam Asi.
Kamaha Kamakrut Kanta Kamah Kamapradah Prabhuh Vishnuh : Vishnu and Desire
- kAmahA – the one who destroys desire and kAmakRt – the one who causes it.
- he is kAntah – the one we desire
- kAmah – the desire itself
- and kAmapradah – the one who gives us what we desire!
My Veda Guru says that it is Vishnu we seek when we desire anything. Once we get the Bhagavad-Tatva (Divine essence) from any thing – even dinner for eg, we lose interest in it.
Like kids on the beach we pick up each shell and see – is this it? and throw it away once we know that this piece isn’t it.
- karaNam – the instrument
- kaaraNam – the reason
- kartaa – the doer of Karma (good action)
- vikarta – the doer of vikarma (not good action)
- gahanah – the inexplicable one who is hard to understand
- guhah – who is secret
This means that Vishnu is the hands with which I type or clean dishes, the reason I type, the writer and cleaner, the one who makes the typos or misses a spot, yes, this Omni-present one, Vishnu is not easy to understand!
In Isa Vasya Upanishad, Seventeenth Mantram, we said kratO smara kRtam smara! – Remember Oh Doer! remember what was done!
Do you remember what you have done in this life so far? When I think of myself as the Purusha , Vishnu, everything I have ever done takes on a different context and meaning. Try it and see.
And suddenly there are not ten or twenty two avatars of Vishnu, but millions and millions of manifestations of Vishnu, you and me and every pebble, star and bacterium. There is a universal consciousness with a universal purpose and we have our own little or major roles to play., but these are well designed roles, that all fit in together for a purpose that we find it hard to fathom, because we have decided to focus on that little bit that we have to accomplish “in this time”, “with this body”.
And that is what we have to remember, who we are and what we have done in our life. We need to kind of pause and see what it is that’s going on and not just the appearances.
Sri means welfare and is often taken to mean wealth, even though when we look around us we see that well-being and wealth are not the same thing.
Sri is understood to be an aspect of Devi, the all-mother, and is frequently understood to be the consort ofVishnu.
- s’rIdah : one who gives s’rI
- s’rIs’ah : the master of s’rI, according to whose will s’rI conducts herself.
- s’rInivAsah : the abode of s’rI
- sr’Inidhih : the hoard or accumulation of s’rI
- s’rIvibhAvanah : the one who makes s’rI glow
- s’rIdharah : the one who bears s’rI
- s’rIkarah : the one who causes s’rI
- s’rEyah : welfare itself
- s’rImAn : one who possess s’rI
- s’rIvatsavakSAh : who bears Srivatsa on his chest
- s’rIvAsah : who lives in s’rI
- s’rIpatih : the husband of s’rI
- s’rImatAm varah : the darling of the auspicious thinking people
Authorship and Copyright Notice : All Rights Reserved : Satya Sarada Kandula
Kisari Mohan Ganguli’s Translation of Vishnu Sahasranamam excerpt from the Mahabharata published between 1883 and 1896
quoted text begins ————
SECTION CXLIX, Anusasanika Parva
“Vaisampayana said, ‘Having heard all the duties in their entirety and all those sacred acts and objects that cleanse human beings of their sins. Yudhishthira once more addressed the son of Santanu in the following words.’
“Yudhishthira said, “Who may be said to be the one god in the world? Who may be said to be the one object which is our sole refuge? Who is he by worshipping whom or hymning whose praises human being would get what is beneficial? What religion is that which, according to thy judgment, is the foremost of all religions? What are those Mantras by reciting which a living creature becomes freed from the bonds of birth and life?’
“Bhishma said, ‘One should always, with alacrity and throwing away all languor, hymn the praises of that Lord of the universe, that god of gods (viz., Vasudeva), who is Infinite and the foremost of all Beings, by uttering His thousand names. By always worshipping with reverence and devotion that immutable Being, by meditating on him, by hymning His praises and bowing the head unto Him, and by performing sacrifices unto Him, indeed by always praising Vishnu, who is without beginning and without end or destruction, who is the Supreme Lord of all the worlds, and who is the Master and Controller of the universe, one can succeed in transcending all sorrow. Verily, He is devoted to the Brahmanas, conversant with all duties and practices, the enhancer of the fame and achievement of all persons, the master of all the worlds, exceedingly wonderful, and the prime cause of the origin of all creatures. Even this, in my judgment, is the foremost religion of all religions, viz., one should always worship and hymn the praises of the lotus-eyed Vasudeva with devotion. He is the highest Energy. He is the highest Penance. He is the highest Brahma. He is the highest refuge. He is the most holy of all holies, the most auspicious of all auspicious objects. He is the god of all the gods and He is the immutable father of all creatures. On the advent of the primal Yuga, all creatures spring from Him. On the expiration, again of a Yuga, all things disappear in Him. 1 Hear, O king, the thousand names, possessed of great efficacy in destroying sins, of that foremost one in all the worlds that Master of the universe, viz., Vishnu. All those names derived from His attributes, secret and well-known, of the high-souled Vasudeva which were sung by Rishis, I shall recite to thee for the good of all. They are, Om! He that enters all things, besides Himself, He that covers all things, He unto whom sacrificial libations are poured, the Lord of the Past, the Present, and the Future, the Creator (or Destroyer) of all existent things, the upholder of all existent things, the Existent, the Soul of all, the Originator of all things (I–IX); of cleansed Soul, the Supreme Soul, the highest Refuge of all emancipated persons, the Immutable, He that lies enclosed in a case, the Witness, He that knows the material case in which He resides, the Indestructible (X–XVII); 1 He upon whom the mind rests during Yoga-abstraction, the Guide or leader of all persons conversant with Yoga, the Lord of both Pradhana (or Prakriti) and Purusha. He that assumed a human form with a leonine head, He of handsome features and equipments, He of beautiful hair, the foremost of Purushas (XVIII–XXIV); 2 the embodiment of all things, the Destroyer of all things, He that transcends the three attributes of Sattwa, Rajas and Tamas, the Motionless, the Beginning of all things, the Receptacle into which all things sink at the universal Dissolution, the Immutable, He who takes birth at his own will, He who causes the acts of all living creatures to fructify (in the form of weal or woe) the Upholder of all things, the Source from which the primal elements have sprung, the Puissant One, He in whom is the unbounded Lordship over all things (XXV–XXXVII); 3 the Self-born, He that gives happiness to His worshippers, the presiding Genius (of golden form) in the midst of the Solar disc, the Lotus-eyed, Loud-voiced, He that is without beginning and without end. He that upholds the universe (in the form of Ananta and others), He that ordains all acts and their fruits, He that is superior to the Grandsire Brahma (XXXVIII–XLVI); 4 the Immeasurable, the Lord of the senses (or He that has curled locks), He from whose navel the primeval lotus sprang, the Lord of all the deities, the Artificer of the universe, the Mantra, He that weakens or emaciates all things, He that is vast, the Ancient one, He that is enduring (XLVII–LVI). 1 He that is incapable of being seized (by either the senses or the mind), the Eternal One, Krishna, the Red-eyed, He that kills all creatures at the time of the universal dissolution, He that is vast for knowledge and puissance and other attributes of the kind, He that resides in three parts (above, middle, and below) of every, creature. That which cleanses, is auspicious, and high (LVII–LXIV). 2 He that urges all creatures in respect of all their acts. He that causes the life-breaths to act. He that causes all living creatures to live, the Eldest, the Foremost of all those that are regarded as the Lords of all creatures, He that has gold in his abdomen, He that has the Earth for his abdomen, the Lord of Sri or Lakshmi, the Slayer of Madhu (LXV–LXXII) 3: the Omnipotent, He that is endued with great prowess, He that is armed with the bow, He that is Possessed of a mind capable of bearing the contents of all treatises, He that roves through the universe, riding on Garuda. He that is well suited to the offerings made unto Him and that has the power to enjoy them properly, the Unrivalled, He that is incapable of being discomfited, He that knows all acts that are done, He that is identical with all acts, He that rests on His own true self (LXXIV–LXXXIV) 1 the Lord of all the deities, He that is the Refuge of all, the embodiment of the highest felicity, He whose seed is the universe, He that is the source of all things, the day (in consequence of His awakening Jiva who is steeped in the sleep of Nescience), the Year, the Snake (owing to His being incapable of being seized), the embodiment of Conviction, He that sees all things (LXXXV–XCIV): 2 the Unborn, the Lord of all creatures, He that has achieved success, He that is Success itself, He that is the beginning of all things (in consequence of His being the cause of all things), He that is above deterioration, He that is Righteousness in the form of the bovine bull and the great boar that raised the submerged Earth, He that is of immeasurable soul, He that stands aloof from all kinds of union (XCV–CIII); 3 He that is Pauaka among the deities called Vasus (or, He that dwells in His worshippers). He that is liberal soul, being freed from wrath and hatred and pride and other evil passions. Truth whose soul is equable in consequence of His thorough impartiality, He that has been measured by His worshippers, He that is always equal, being above all change or modification, He that never refuses to grant the wishes of His worshippers, He whose eyes are like the petals of the lotus, He whose acts are always characterised by Righteousness (or He who is always engaged in granting the wishes of those that are devoted to Him), He that is of the form of Righteousness (CIV–CXIII); He that destroys all creatures (or their pains), the Many headed, He that upholds the universe, He that is the source of the universe, He who is of pure or spotless fame, the Immortal One He that is Eternal and Fixed, He that is possessed of beautiful limbs, (or, He the ascension unto whom is the best of all acts), He who has such knowledge having penance for its indication that He is able to agitable Prakriti for evolving the universe out of her (CXIV–CXXII); He that goes everywhere (in the sense of pervading all things as their cause), the Omniscient One, He that blazes forth in unmodified effulgence, He whose troops are everywhere (in the form of devoted associates), (or He at whose very sight the Danava troops are scattered in all directions). He that is coveted (or sought) by all (or, He that grinds all His foes), He that is the Veda, He that is conversant with the Veda, He that is conversant with all the limbs (or branches) of the Veda, He that represents the limbs (or branches) of the Veda (i.e., all the subsidiary sciences), He that settles the interpretations of the Vedas, He that has no superior in wisdom (CXXIII–CXXXIII); He that is the master of all the worlds, He that is the master of the deities, He that is the Supervisor of both Righteousness and Unrighteousness (for giving the fruits thereof to those that seek the one or the other), He that is both Effect and Cause, (or, He whose life has not been determined by acts achieved on any previous occasion in consequence of His transcending Prakriti). He that is four-souled (in consequence of His four forms of Aniruddha, Pradyumna, Sankarshana and Vasudeva). He that is known by four forms (as above), He that has four horns (which appeared on Him when He had assumed a human form with a lion’s head for slaying the Asura chief Hiranya-Kasipu), He that has four arms (for holding the conch, discus, mace, and lotus) (CXXXIV–CXLI); He that blazes forth in effulgence, He that is the giver of food and cherishes those that are good; He that does not bear or put up with those that are wicked, (or, He that puts up with the occasional transgressions of his devotees); He that existed before the universe started into life; He that is stainless; He that is ever victorious; He that vanquishes the very deities; He that is the material cause of the universe; He that repeatedly resides in material causes (CXLII–CL); He that is the younger brother of Indra, (or He that transcends Indra in accomplishments and attributes). He that took birth as a dwarf (from Aditi by her husband Kasyapa in order to beguile the Asura king Vali of the sovereignty of the three worlds, and bestow the same upon Indra who had been dispossessed of it), He that is tall (in allusion to the vast universal form of His which He assumed at the sacrifice of Vali for covering Heaven, Earth, and the Nether regions with three steps of His). He whose acts are never futile, He that cleanses (those that worship Him, those that hear of Him and those that think of Him), He that is endued with pre-eminent energy and strength, He that transcends Indra in all attributes, He that accepts all His worshippers, He that is the Creation itself in consequence of His being the Causes thereof, He that upholds His self in the same form without being ever subject to birth, growth, or death, He that sustains all creatures in their respective functions in the ‘universe, He that controls the hearts of all creatures (CLI–CLXII); He that deserves to be known by those who wish to achieve what is for their highest good; He who is the celestial physician in the form of Dhanwantari, (or He who cures that foremost of all diseases, viz., the bonds that bind one to the world); He that is always engaged in Yoga; He that slays great Asuras for establishing Righteousness; He that is the Lord of that Lakshmi who sprang from the ocean when it was churned by the deities and the Asuras, (or, He that cherishes both the goddesses of prosperity and learning); He that is honey (in consequence of the pleasure He gives to those that succeed in having a taste of him); He that transcends the senses (or is invisible to those that turn away from Him); He that is possessed of great powers of illusion (manifested in His beguiling Mahadeva and the deities on many occasions); He that puts forth great energy (in achieving mighty feats); He that transcends all in might (CLXIII–CLXXII); He that transcends all in intelligence; He that transcends all in puissance; He that transcends all in ability; He that discovers the universe by the effulgence emanating from his body; He whose body is incapable of being ascertained by the eye (or any other sense organ of knowledge); He that is possessed of every beauty; He whose soul is incapable of being comprehended by either deities or men; He that held on his back, in the form of the vast tortoise, the huge mountain, Mandara, which was made the churning staff by the deities and the Asuras when they set themselves to churn the great ocean for obtaining therefrom all the valuables hid in its bosom; (or, He who held up the mountains of Govardhana in the woods of Brinda for protecting the denizens of that delightful place, who were especial objects of His kindness, from the wrath of Indra who poured incessant showers for days together with a view to drowning every thing) (CLXXIII–CLXXX); He that can shoot His shafts to a great distance, piercing through obstruction of every kind; He that raised the submerged Earth, having assumed the form of the mighty Boar; He on whose bosom dwells the goddess of Prosperity; (or He that is identical with Kama, the lord of Rati); He that is the Refuge of those that are righteous; He that is incapable of being won without thorough devotion; (or, He that is incapable of being immured or restrained by any one putting forth his powers); He that is the delight of the deities, or, He that is the embodiment of fullness of joy; He that rescued the submerged Earth; (or He that understands the hymns addressed to him by His devotees); He that is the Master of ell eloquent persons (or He that dispels the calamities of all those who know him) (CLXXXL–CLXXXVIII); He that is full of blazing effulgence) He that suppressed the afflictions of His adorers; (or, He that assumes the form of Yama, the universal Destroyer, for chastising all persons that fall away from their duties); He that assumed the form of a Swan for communicating the Vedas to the Grandsire Brahman; (or, He that enters into the bodies of all persons); He that has Garuda, the prince of the feathery denizens of the welkin, for His vehicle; He that is the foremost of snakes in consequence of His identity with Sesha or Ananta who upholds on his head the vast Earth, (or, He that has the hood of the prince of snakes for His bed while He lies down to sleep on the vast expansion of water after the dissolution of the universe); He whose navel is as beautiful as gold; He
that underwent the severest austerities in the form of Narayana at Vadari on the breast of Himavat; He whose navel resembles a lotus; (or, He from whose navel sprang the primeval lotus in which the Grandsire Brahma was born); He that is the Lord of all creatures (CLXXXIX–CXCVII); He that transcends death; (or, He that wards off Death from those that are devoted to him); He that always casts a kind eye on His worshippers; (or, He that sees all things in the universe); He that destroys all things; (or, He that drenches with nectar all those that worship Him with single-minded devotion); He that is the Ordainer of all ordainers; (or, He that unites all persons with the consequences of their acts); He that himself enjoys and endures the fruits of all acts, (or, He that assumed the form of Rama, the son of Dasaratha, and going into exile at the command of His sire made a treaty with Sugriva the chief of the Apes for aiding him in the recovery of his kingdom from the grasp of his elder brother Vali in return for the assistance which Sugriva promised Him for recovering from Ravana His wife Sita who had been ravished by that Rakshasa and borne away to his island home in Lanka), He that is always of the same form; (or, He that is exceedingly affectionate unto His worshippers); He that is always moving; (or, He that is of the form of Kama who springs up in the heart of every creature); He that is incapable of being endured by Danavas and Asuras (or, He that rescued His wife Sita after slaying Ravana, or, He that shows compassion towards even Chandalas and members of other low castes when they approach Him with devotion, in allusion to His friendship, in the form of Rama, for Guhaka the chief of the Chandalas, inhabiting the country known by the name of Sringaverapura); He that chastises the wicked; (or, He that regulates the conduct of all persons by the dictates of the Srutis and the Smritis); He whose soul has true knowledge for its indication; (or, He that destroyed Ravana, the foe of the gods, having assumed the form of Rama that was full of compassion and other amiable virtues); He that destroys the foes of the deities (or, He that slays those who obstruct or forbid the giving of presents unto deserving persons) (CXCVII–CCVIII); He that is the instructor in all sciences and the father of all; He that is the instructor of even the Grandsire Brahma; He that is the abode or resting place of all creatures; He that is the benefactor of those that are good and is free from the stain of falsehood; He whose prowess is incapable of being baffled; He that never casts his eye on such acts as are not sanctioned or approved by the scriptures; He that casts his eye on such acts as are sanctioned or approved by the scriptures; (or, He whose eye never winks or sleeps); He that wears the unfading garland of victory called by the name of Vaijayanti; He that is the Lord of speech and that is possessed of great liberality insomuch that He rescued the lowest of the low and the vilest of the vile by granting them His grace (CCLX–CCXVIII); He that leads persons desirous of Emancipation to the foremost of all conditions, viz., Emancipation itself; (or, He that assumes the form of a mighty Fish and scudding through the vast expanse of waters that cover the Earth when the universal dissolution comes, and dragging the boat tied to His horns, leads Manu and others to safety); He that is the leader of all creatures; (or, He that sports in the vast expanse of waters which overwhelm all things at the universal dissolution); He whose words are the Veda and who rescued the Vedas when they were submerged in the waters at the universal dissolution; He that is the accomplisher of all functions in the universe; He that assumes the form of the wind for making all living creatures act or exert themselves; (or, He whose motions are always beautiful, or, who wishes His creatures to glorify Him); He that is endued with a thousand heads; He that is the Soul of the universe and as such pervades all things; He that has a thousand eyes and a thousand legs; (CCXIX–CCXXVI); He that causes the wheel of the universe to revolve at His will; He whose soul is freed from desire and who transcends those conditions that invest Jiva and to which Jiva is liable; He that is concealed from the view of all persons that are attached to the world; (or, He that has covered the eyes of all persons with the bandage of nescience); He that grinds those that turn away from him; He that sets the days a-going in consequence of His being identical with the Sun; He that is the destroyer of all-destroying Time itself; He that conveys the libations poured on the sacred fire unto those for whom they are intended; (or, He that bears the universe, placing it on only a minute fraction of His body); He that has no beginning; (or, He that has no fixed habitation) He that upholds the Earth in space (in the form of Sesha, or, rescues her in the form of the mighty boar or supports her as a subtil pervader) (CCXXVII–CCXXXV); He that is exceedingly inclined to grace, insomuch that He grants happiness to even foes like Sisupala; He that has been freed from the attributes of Rajas (passion) and Tamas (darkness) so that He is pure or stainless Sattwa by itself; (or, He that has obtained the fruition of all His wishes); He that supports the universe; He that feeds (or enjoys the universe); He that is displayed in infinite puissance; He that honours the deities, the Pitris, and His own worshippers; He that is honoured or adored by those that are themselves honoured or adored by others; (or, He whose acts are all beautiful and enduring); He that accomplishes the purposes of others; (or, He that is the benefactor of others); He that withdraws all things unto Himself at the universal dissolution; (or, He that destroys the foes of the deities or of His worshippers); He that has the waters for his home; (or, He that is the sole Refuge of all creatures or He that destroys the ignorance of all creatures (CCXXXVI–CCXLVI); He that is distinguished above all, He that cherishes the righteous, He that cleanses all the worlds, He that crowns with fruition the desires of all creatures, He whose wishes are always crowned with fruition, He that gives success to all, He that bestows success upon those that solicit Him for it (CCXLVII–CCLVI); He that presides over all sacred days; (or, He that overwhelms Indra himself with His own excellent attributes), He that showers all objects of desire upon His worshippers, He that walks over all the universe, He that offers the excellent flight of steps constituted by Righteousness (unto those that desire to ascend to the highest place); He that has Righteousness in His abdomen; (or, He that protects Indra even as a mother protects the child in her womb); He that aggrandises (His worshippers), He that spreads Himself out for becoming the vast universe, He that is aloof from all things (though pervading them); He that is the receptacle of the ocean of Srutis (CCLVII–CCLXIV); He that is possessed of excellent arms (i.e., arms capable of upholding the universe); He that is incapable of being borne by any creature, He from whom flowed the sounds called Brahman (or Veda), He that is the Lord of all Lords of the universe, He that is the giver of wealth, He that dwells in His own puissance, He that is multiform, He that is of vast form, He that resides in the form of Sacrifice in all animals, He that causes all things to be displayed (CCLXV–CCLXXIV), He that is endued with great might, energy, and splendour; He that displays Himself in visible forms to His worshippers, He that scorches the unrighteous with His burning energy, He that is enriched with the sixfold attributes (of affluence, etc.), He that imparted the Veda to the Grandsire Brahma, He that is of the form of the Samans, Riks, and Yajuses (of the Veda); He that soothes His worshippers burning with the afflictions of the world like the rays of the moon cooling all living creatures of the world, He that is endued with blazing effulgence like the sun (CCLXXV–CCLXXXII); He from whose mind has sprung the moon, He that blazes forth in His own effulgence, He that nourishes all creatures even like the luminary marked by the hare, He that is the Master of the deities, He that is the great medicine for the disease of worldly attachment, He that is the great causeway of the universe, He that is endued with knowledge and other attributes that are never futile and with prowess that is incapable of being baffled (CCLXXXIII–CCLXXXIX); He that is solicited by all creatures at all times, viz., the Past, the Present, and the Future; He that rescues his worshippers by casting kind glances upon them, He that sanctifies even them that are sacred; He that merges the life-breath in the Soul; (or, He that assumes diverse forms for protecting both the Emancipated and the Unemancipated); He that kills the desires of those that are Emancipated; (or, He that prevents evil desires from arising in the minds of His worshippers); He that is the sire of Kama (the principle of desire or lust); He that is most agreeable, He that is desired by all creatures, He that grants the fruition of all desires, He that has the ability to accomplishing all acts (CCXC–CCXCIX); He that sets the four Yugas to begin their course; He that causes the Yugas to continually revolve as on a wheel, He that is endued with the diverse kinds of illusion (and, therefore, the cause from which spring the different kinds of acts that distinguish the different Yugas); He that is the greatest of eaters (in consequence of His swallowing all things at the end of every Kalpa); He that is incapable of being seized (by those that are not His worshippers); He that is manifest (being exceedingly vast); He that subjugates thousands of foes (of the deities); He that subjugates innumerable foes (CCC–CCCVIII); He that is desired (by even the Grandsire and Rudra, or He that is adored in sacrifices); He that is distinguished above all; He that is desired by those that are endued with wisdom and righteousness; He that has an ornament of (peacock’s) feathers on His headgear; He that stupefies all creatures with His illusion; He that showers His grace on all His worshippers; He that kills the wrath of the righteous; He that fills the unrighteous with wrath; He that is the accomplisher of all acts; He who holds the universe on his arms; He that upholds the Earth (CCCIX–CCCXVIII); He that transcends the six well-known modifications (of inception, birth or appearance growth, maturity, decline, and dissolution); He that is endued with great celebrity (in consequence of His feats); He that causes all living creatures to live (in consequence of His being the all-pervading soul); He that gives life; the younger brother of Vasava (in the form of Upendra or the dwarf); He that is the receptacle of all the waters in the universe; He that covers all creatures (in consequence of His being the material cause of everything); He that is never heedless (being always above error); He that is established on His own glory (CCCXIX–CCCXXVII); He that flows in the form of nectar; (or, He that dries up all things); He upholds the path of righteousness; He that bears the burden of the universe; He that gives desirable boons unto those that solicit them: He that causes the winds to blow; He that is the son of Vasudeva; (or, He that covers the universe with His illusions and sports in the midst of it); He that is endued with extraordinary lustre; He that is the originating cause of the deities; He that pierces all hostile towns (CCCXXVIII–CCCXXXVI); He that transcends all sorrow and grief; He that leads us safely across the ocean of life or the world; He that dispels from the hearts of all His worshippers the fear of rebirth; He that is possessed of infinite courage and prowess; He that is an offspring of Sura’s race; He that is the master of all living creatures; He that is inclined to show His grace unto all; He that has come on earth for a hundred times (for rescuing the good, destroying the wicked, and establishing righteousness); He that holds a lotus in one of his hands; He whose eyes resemble the petals of the lotus (CCCXXXVII–CCCXLVI); He from whose navel sprang the primeval lotus; (or, He that is seated upon a lotus); He that is endued with eyes resembling the petals of the lotus; He that is adored by even worshippers as one seated within the lotus of His hearts; He that assumed the form of embodied Jiva (through His own illusion); He that is endued with puissance of every kind; He that grows in the form of the five primal elements; the Ancient Soul; He that is endued with vast eyes; He that has Garuda sitting on the standard of His car (CCCXLVII–CCCCLV); He that is incomparable; the Sarabha (the lion-killing animal); He that strikes the wicked with terror; He that knows everything that has occurred in Time; He that accepts, in the forms of the deities, the butter poured on the sacrificial fire; He that is known by all kinds of evidence or proof; He upon whose breast sits Prosperity always; He that is victorious in every battle (CCCLVI–CCCLXIV); He that is above destruction; He that assumes a red form; (or, becomes wrathful unto the enemies of His worshippers); He that is an object of search with the righteous; He that is at the root of all things; He that has the mark of the string around his abdomen (for Yasoda had bound Him with a cord while He was Krishna); He that bears or forgives all injuries; He that upholds the Earth in the form of her mountains; He that is the foremost of all objects of worship; He that is endued with great speed; He that swallows vast quantities of food (CCCLXV–CCCLXXIV); He that caused the creation to start into life; He that always agitates both Prakriti and Purusha; He that shines with resplendence; (or, sports in joy); He that has puissance in his stomach; He that is the Supreme Master of all; He that is the material out of which the universe has been made; He that is the cause or Agent who has made the universe: He that is independent of all things; He that ordains variety in the universe; He that is incapable of being comprehended; He that renders Himself invisible by the screen of illusion (CCCLXXV–CCCLXXXV); He that is Chit divested of all attributes; He on whom all things rest; He in whom all things reside when the universal dissolution comes; He that assigns the foremost place to those that worship Him; He that is durable; He that is endued with the highest puissance; He that has been glorified in the Vedanta; He that is contented; He that is always full; He whose glance is auspicious (CCCLXXXVI–CCCXCV); He that fills all Yogins with delight; He that is the end of all creatures (for it is in Him that all things merge at the universal dissolution); He that is the faultless Path; He that in the form of Jiva, leads to Emancipation; He that leads (Jiva to Emancipation); He that has none to lead Him; He that is endued with great might; He that is the foremost of all beings possessed of might; He that uphold He that is the foremost of all Beings conversant with duty and religion (CCCXCVI–CDIV); He that joins, at the time of creation, the disunited elements for forming all objects; He that resides in all bodies; He that causes all creatures to act in the form of Kshetrajna; He that creates all creatures after destroying them at the universal dissolution; He unto whom every one bows with reverence; He that is extended over the entire universe; He that owns the primeval golden egg as his abdomen (whence, as from the female uterus), everything proceeds; He that destroys the foes of the deities; He that overspreads all things (being the material cause whence they spring); He that spreads sweet perfumes; He that disregards the pleasures of the senses (CDV–CDXV); He that is identifiable with the seasons; He at whose sight alone all worshippers succeed in obtaining the great object of their wish; He that weakens all creatures; He that dwells in the firmament of the heart, depending upon His own glory and puissance; He that is capable of being known everywhere (in consequence of His omnipresence); He that inspires everyone with dread; He in whom all creatures dwell; He that is clever in accomplishing all acts; He that constitutes the rest of all creatures (being, as He is, the embodiment of Emancipation); He that is endued with competence greater than that of other Beings (CDXVI–CDXXV); He in whom the whole Universe is spread out? He that is Himself immobile and in whom all things rest for ever; He that is an object of proof; He that is the Indestructible and unchanging seed; He that is sought by all (in consequence of His being happiness); He that has no desire (in consequence of all His desires having been gratified); He that is the great cause (which covers the universe): He that has all sorts of things to enjoy; He that has great wealth wherewith to secure all objects of desire (CDXXVI–CDXXXIV); He that is above despair; He that exists in the form of Renunciation; He that is without birth; He that is the stake unto which Righteousness is tethered; He that is the great embodiment of sacrifice; He who is the nave of the starry wheel that revolves in the firmament; 1 He that is the Moon among the constellations; He that is competent to achieve every feat; He that stays in His own soul when all things disappear He that cherishes the desire for Creation (CDXXXV–CDXLIV); He that is the embodiment of all sacrifices; He that is adored in all sacrifices and religious rites; He that is the most adorable of the deities present in the sacrifices that men perform; He that is the embodiment of all such sacrifices in which animals are offered up according to the ordinance; He that is adored by persons before they take any food; 2 He that is the Refuge of those that seek emancipation; He that beholds the acts and omissions of all creatures; He whose soul transcends all attributes; He that is possessed of omniscience; He that is identical with knowledge that is unacquired, unlimited, and capable of accomplishing everything (CDXLV–CDLIV); He that is observant of excellent vows (chief amongst which is the granting of favour unto one that solicits it with a pure heart); He that has a face always full of delight; He that is exceedingly subtle; He that utters the most agreeable sounds (in the form of the Veda or as Krishna playing on the lute); He that gives happiness (to all His worshippers); He that does good to others without expecting any return; He that fills all creatures with delight; He that has subdued wrath; He that has mighty arms (so mighty that He has slain as if in sport the mightiest of Asuras); He that tears those that are unrighteous (CDLV–CDLXIV); He that causes those persons who are destitute of knowledge of the soul to be steeped in the deep sleep of His illusion; He that relies on Himself (being entirely independent of all persons and things); He that overspreads the entire universe; He that exists in infinite forms; He that is engaged in vocations infinite in number; He that lives in everything; He that is full of affection towards all His worshippers; He that is the universal father (all living creatures of the universe being as calves sprung from Him); He that holds, in the form of the vast Ocean, all jewels and gems in His abdomen, He that is the Lord of all treasures (CDLXV–CDLXXIV); He that is the protector of righteousness; He that accomplishes all the duties of righteousness; He that is the substratum of righteousness; He that is existent for all time; He that is non-existent (in the form of the universe, for the manifested universe is the result of illusion); He that is destructible (in the form of the universe); He that is indestructible as Chit; He that is, in the form of Jiva, destitute of true knowledge; He that is, in the form of the Sun, is endued with a thousand rays; He that ordains (even all such great and mighty creatures as Sesha and Garuda, etc.); He that has created all the Sastras (CDLXXV–CDLXXXV); He that exists, in the form of the Sun, as the centre of innumerable rays of light; He that dwells in all creatures; He that is possessed of great prowess; He that is the Master of even Yama and others of similar puissance; He that is the oldest of the deities (existing as He does from the beginning); He that exists in His own glory, casting off all conditions; He that is the Lord of even all the deities; He that is the ruler of even him that upholds the deities (viz., Indra) (CDLXXXVI–CDXCIII); He that transcends birth and destruction; He that tended and protected kine (in the form of Krishna); He that nourishes all creatures; He that is approachable by knowledge alone; He that is Ancient; He that upholds the elements which constitute the body; He that enjoys and endures (weal and woe, in the form of Jiva); He that assumed the form of a vast Boar; (or, He that, in the form of Rama, was the Lord of a large monkey host); He that gave plentiful presents unto all in a grand sacrifice performed by Him (CDXCIV–DII); He that drinks Soma in every sacrifice; He that drinks nectar; He that, in the form of Soma (Chandramas), nourishes all the herbs and plants; He that conquers foes in a trice when even they are infinite in number; He that is of universal form and is the foremost of all existent entities; He that is the chastiser; He that is victorious over all; He whose purposes are incapable of being baffled; He that deserves gifts; He that gives what His creatures have not and who protects what they have (DIII–DXII); He that holds the life-breaths; He that beholds all His creatures as objects of direct vision; He that never beholds anything beside His own Self; He that gives emancipation; He whose footsteps (three in number) covered Heaven, Earth, and the Nether regions; He who is the receptacle of all the water; He that overwhelms all Space, all Time, and all things; He that lies on the vast expanse of waters after the universal dissolution; He that causes the destruction of all things (DXIII–DXXI); He that is without birth; He that is exceedingly adorable; He that appears in His own nature; He that has conquered all foes (in the form of wrath and other evil passions); He that delights those that meditate on Him; He that is joy; He that fills others with delight; He that swells with all causes of delight; He that has truth and other virtues for His indications; He whose foot steps are in the three worlds (DXXII–DXXX); He that is the first of the Rishis (being conversant with the entire Vedas); He that is identical with the preceptor Kapila; He that is the knower of the Universe; He that is Master of the Earth; He that has their feet; He that is the guardian of the deities; He that has large horns (in allusion to the piscatory form in which He saved Manu on the occasion of the universal deluge by scudding through the waters with Manu’s boat tied to His horns); He that exhausts all acts by causing their doers to enjoy or endure their fruits; (or, He that grinds the Destroyer himself) (DXXXI–DXXXVIII); the great Boar: He that is understood or apprehended by the aid of the Vedanta; He that has beautiful troops (in the form of His worshippers); He that is adorned with golden armlets; He that is concealed (being knowledge with the aid of the Upanishads only); He that is deep (in knowledge and puissance); He that is difficult of access; He that transcends both word and thought, that is armed with the discus and the mace (DXXXIX–DXLVII); the Ordainer; He that is the cause (in the form of helper of the universe); He that has never been vanquished; He that is the Island-born Krishna; He that is enduring (in consequence of His transcending decay): He that mows all things and is Himself above deterioration; the Varuna (the deity of the waters); the son of Varuna (in the form of Vasishtha or Agastya); He that is immovable as a tree; He that is displayed in His own true form in the lotus of the heart; He that creates, preserves, and destroys by only a fiat of the mind (DXLVIII–DLVIII); He that is possessed of the sixfold attributes (of sovereignty etc.); He that destroys the sixfold attributes (at the universal dissolution); He that is felicity (in consequence of His swelling with all kinds of prosperity); He that is adorned with the triumphal garland (called Vaijayanta); He that is armed with the plough (in allusion to His incarnation as Valadeva); He that took birth from the womb of Aditi (in the form of the dwarf that beguiled Vali); He that is endued with effulgence like unto the Sun’s; He that endures all pairs of opposites (such as heat and cold, pleasure and pain, etc.); He that is the foremost Refuge of all things (DLIX–DLXVIII); He that is armed with the best of bows (called Saranga); He that was divested of His battle-axe (by Rama of Bhrigu’s race); 1 He that is fierce; He that is the giver of all objects of desire; He that is so tall as to touch the very heavens with his head (in allusion to the form He assumed at Valis sacrifice); He whose vision extends over the entire universe; He that is Vyasa (who distributed the Vedas); He that is the Master of speech or all learning; He that has started into existence without the intervention of genital organs (DLXVIII–DLXXVI); He that is hymned with the three (foremost) Samans; He that is the singer of the Samans; He that is the Extinction of all worldly attachments (in consequence of His being the embodiment of Renunciation); He that is the Medicine; He that is the Physician (who applies the medicine); He that has ordained the fourth or last mode of life called renunciation (for enabling His creatures to attain to emancipation); He that causes the passions of His worshippers to be quieted (with a view to give them tranquillity of soul); He that is contented (in consequence of His utter dissociation with all worldly objects); He that is the Refuge of devotion and tranquillity of Soul (DLXXVII–DLXXXV); He that is possessed of beautiful limbs; He that is the giver of tranquillity of soul; He that is Creator; He that sports in joy on the bosom of the earth; He that sleeps (in Yoga) lying on the body of the prince of snakes, Sesha, after the universal dissolution; the Benefactor of kine; (or, He that took a human form for relieving the earth of the weight of her population); the Master of the universe; the Protector of the universe; He that is endued with eyes like those of the bull; He that cherishes Righteousness with love (DLXXXVI–DXCV): He that is the unreturning hero; He whose soul has been withdrawn from all attachments; He that reduces to a subtle form the universe at the time of the universal dissolution; He that does good to His afflicted worshippers; He whose name, as soon as heard, cleanses the hearer of all his sins; He who has the auspicious whorl on His breast; He in whom dwells the goddess of Prosperity for ever; He who was chosen by Lakshmi (the goddess of Prosperity) as her Lord; He that is the foremost one of all Beings endued with prosperity (DXCVI–DCIV); He that give prosperity unto His worshippers; the Master of prosperity; He that always lives with those that are endued with prosperity; He that is the receptacle of all kinds of prosperity; He that gives prosperity unto all persons of righteous acts according to the measure of their righteousness; He that holds the goddess of Prosperity on his bosom; He that bestows prosperity upon those that hear of, praise, and mediate on Him; He that is the embodiment of that condition which represents the attainment of unattainable happiness; He that is possessed of every kind of beauty; He that is the Refuge of the three worlds (DCV–DCXIV); He that is possessed of beautiful eye; He that is possessed of beautiful limbs; He that is possessed of a hundred sources of delight; He that represents the highest delight; He that is the Master of all the luminaries in the firmament (for it is He that maintains them in their places and orbits); He that has subjugated His soul; He whose soul is not swayed by any superior Being; He that is always of beautiful acts; He whose doubts have all been dispelled (for [paragraph continues] He is said to behold the whole universe as an Amlaka in His palm) (DCXV–DCXXIII); He that transcends all creatures; He whose vision extends in all directions: He that has no Master; He that at all times transcends all changes; He that (in the form of Rama) had to lie down on that bare ground; He that adorns the earth (by His incarnations); He that is puissance’s self; He that transcends all grief; He that dispels the griefs of all His worshippers as soon as they remember His (DCXXIV–DCXXXII); He that is possessed of effulgence, He that is worshipped by all; He that is the water-pot (as all things reside within Him); He that is of pure soul; He that cleanses all as soon as they hear of him; He that is free and unrestrained; He whose car never turns away from battles; He that is possessed of great wealth; He whose prowess is incapable of being measured (DCXXXIII–DCXLI); He that is the slayer of the Asura named Kalanemi; He that is the Hero; He that has taken birth in the race of Sura; He that is the Lord of all the deities; the soul of the three worlds; the Master of the three worlds; He that has the solar and lunar rays for his hair; the slayer of Kesi; He that destroys all things (at the universal dissolution) (DCXLII–DCL); the Deity from whom the fruition of all desires is sought; He that grants the wishes of all; He that has desires; He that has a handsome form; He that is endued with thorough knowledge of Srutis and Smritis; He that is possessed of a form that is indescribable by attributes; He whose brightest rays overwhelm heaven; He that has no end; He that (in the form of Arjuna or Nara) acquired vast wealth on the occasion of his campaign of conquest (DCLI–DCLX); He who is the foremost object of silent recitation, of sacrifice, of the Vedas, and of all religious acts; He that is the creator of penances and the like; He that is the form of (the grandsire) Brahman, He that is the augmentor of penances; He that is conversant with Brahma; He that is of the form of Brahmana; He that has for His limbs Him that is called Brahma; He that knows all the Vedas and everything in the universe; He that is always fond of Brahmanas and of whom the Brahmanas also are fond (DCLXI–DCLXX); He whose footsteps cover vast areas; He whose feats are mighty; He who is possessed of vast energy; He that is identical with Vasuki, the king of the snakes; He that is the foremost of all sacrifices; He that is Japa, that first of sacrifices; He that is the foremost of all offerings made in sacrifices (DCLXXI–DCLXXVIII); 1 He that is hymned by all; He that loves to be hymned (by his worshippers); He that is himself the hymns uttered by His worshippers; He that is the very act of hymning; He that is the person that hymns; He that is fond of battling (with everything that is evil); He that is full in every respect; He that fills others with every kind of affluence; He that destroys all sins as soon as He is remembered; [paragraph continues] He whose acts are all righteous; He that transcends all kinds of disease (DCLXXIX–DCLXXXIX); He that is endued with the speed of the mind; He that is the creator and promulgator of all kinds of learning; He whose vital seed is gold; He that is giver of wealth (being identical with Kuvera the Lord of treasures); He that takes away all the wealth of the Asuras; the son of Vasudeva; He in whom all creatures dwell; He whose mind dwells in all things in thorough identity with them; He that takes away the sins of all who seek refuge in him (DCXC–DCXCVIII); He that is attainable by the righteous; He whose acts are always good; He that is the one entity in the universe; He that displays Himself in diverse forms; He that is the refuge of all those that are conversant with truth; He who has the greatest of heroes for his troops; 1 He that is the foremost of the Yadavas; He that is the abode of the righteous He that sports in joy (in the woods of Brinda) on the banks of Yamuna (DCXCIX–DCCVVII); He in whom all created things dwell; the deity that overwhelms the universe with His Maya (illusion); He in whom all foremost of Beings become merged (when they achieve their emancipation) He whose hunger is never gratified; He that humbles the pride of all; He that fills the righteous with just pride; He that swells with joy; He that is incapable of being seized; He that has never been vanquished (DCCVII–DCCXVI); He that is of universal form; He that is of vast form; He whose form blazes forth with energy and effulgence; He that is without form (as determined by acts); He that is of diverse forms; (He that is unmanifest); He that is of a hundred forms; He that is of a hundred faces (DCCXVII–DCCXXIV); He that is one; He that is many (through illusion); He that is full of felicity; He that forms the one grand topic of investigation; He from whom is this all; He that is called THAT; He that is the highest Refuge; He that confines Jiva within material causes; He that is coveted by all; He that took birth in the race of Madhu; He that is exceedingly affectionate towards His worshippers (DCCXXV–DCCXXXV); He that is of golden complexion; He whose limbs are like gold (in hue); He that is possessed of beautiful limbs; He whose person is decked with Angadas made with sandal-paste; He that is the slayer of heroes; He that has no equal; He that is like cipher (in consequence of no attributes being affirmable of Him); He that stands in need of no blessings (in consequence of His fulness); He that never swerves from His own nature and puissance and knowledge; He that is mobile in the form of wind (DCCXXXVI–DCCXLV); He that never identifies Himself with anything that is not-soul; 2 He that confers honours on His worshippers; He that is honoured by all; He that is the Lord of the three worlds; He that upholds the three worlds; He that is possessed of intelligence and memory capable of holding in His mind the contents of all treatises; He that took birth in a sacrifice; He that is worthy of the highest praise; He whose intelligence and memory are never futile; He that upholds the earth (DCCXLVI–DCCLV); He that pours forth heat in the form of the Sun; He that is the bearer of great beauty of limbs; He that is the foremost of all bearers of weapons; He that accepts the flowery and leafy offerings made to Him by His worshippers; He that has subdued all his passions and grinds all His foes; He that has none to walk before Him; He that has four horns; He that is the elder brother of Gada (DCCLVI–DCCLXIV); He that has four arms; He from whom the four Purushas have sprung; He that is the refuge of the four modes of life and the four orders of men; He that is of four souls (Mind, Understanding, Consciousness, and Memory); He from whom spring the four objects of life, viz., Righteousness, Wealth, Pleasure, and Emancipation; He that is conversant with the four Vedas; He that has displayed only a fraction of His puissance (DCCLXV–DCCLXXII); He that sets the wheel of the world to revolve round and round; He whose soul is dissociated from all worldly attachments; He that is incapable of being vanquished; He that cannot be transcended; He that is exceedingly difficult of being attained; He that is difficult of being approached; He that is difficult of access; He that is difficult of being brought within the heart (by even Yogins); He that slays even the most powerful foes (among the Danavas) (DCCLXXIII–DCCLXXXI); He that has beautiful limbs; He that takes the essence of all things in the universe; He that owns the most beautiful warp and woof (for weaving this texture of fabric of the universe); He that weaves with ever-extending warp and woof; He whose acts are done by Indra; He whose acts are great; He who has no acts undone; He who has composed all the Vedas and scriptures (DCCLXXXII–DCCLXXXIX); He whose birth is high; He that is exceedingly handsome; He whose heart is full of commiseration; He that has precious gems in His navel; He that has excellent knowledge for His eye; He that is worthy of worship by Brahman himself and other foremost ones in the universe; He that is giver of food; He that assumed horns at the time of the universal dissolution; He that has always subjugated His foes most wonderfully; He that knows all things; He that is ever victorious over those that are of irresistible prowess (DCCXC–DCCXCIX); He whose limbs are like gold; He that is incapable of being agitated (by wrath or aversion or other passion); He that is Master of all those who are masters of all speech; He that is the deepest lake; He that is the deepest pit; He that transcends the influence of Time; He in whom the primal elements are established (DCCC–DCCCVI); He that gladdens the earth; He that grants fruits which are as agreeable as the Kunda flowers (Jasmim pubescens, Linn); He that gave away the earth unto Kasyapa (in His incarnation as Rama); He that extinguishes the three kinds of misery (mentioned in the Sankhya philosophy) like a rain-charged cloud cooling the heat of the earth by its downpour; He that cleanses all creatures; He that has none to urge Him; He that dranknectar; He that has an undying body; He that is possessed of omniscience; He that has face and eyes turned towards every direction (DCCCVIII–DCCCXVI); He that is easily won (with, that is, such gifts as consist of flowers and leaves); He that has performed excellent vows; He that is crowned with success by Himself; He that is victorious over all foes; He that scorches all foes; He that is the ever-growing and tall Banian that overtops all other trees; He that is the sacred fig tree (Ficus glomerata, Willd); He that is the Ficus religiosa; (or, He that is not durable, in consequence of His being all perishable forms in the universe even as he is all the imperishable forms that exist); He that is the slayer of Chanura of the Andhra country (DCCCXVII–DCCCXXV); He that is endued with a thousand rays; He that has seven tongues (in the forms of Kali, Karali, etc.); He that has seven flames (in consequence of His being identical with the deity of fire); He that has seven horses for bearing His vehicle; (or, He that owns the steed called Sapta); He that is formless; He that is sinless: He that is inconceivable; He that dispels all fears; He that destroys all fears (DCCCXXVI–DCCCXXXIV); He that is minute; He that is gross; He that is emaciated; He that is adipose; He that is endued with attributes; He that transcends all attributes; He that is unseizable; He that suffers Himself to be easily seized (by His worshippers); He that has an excellent face; He that has for His descendants the people of the accidental regions; He that extends the creation consisting of the fivefold primal elements (DCCCXXXV–DCCCXLVI); He that bears heavy weights (in the form of Ananta); He that has been declared by the Vedas; He that is devoted to Yoga; He that is the lord of all Yogins; He that is the giver of all wishes; He that affords an asylum to those that seek it; He that sets Yogins to practise Yoga anew after their return to life upon the conclusion of their life of felicity in heaven; He that invests Yogins with puissance even after the exhaustion of their merits; He that has goodly leaves (in the form of the Schhandas of the Vedas, Himself being the tree of the world); He that causes the winds to blow (DCCCXLVII–DCCCLVI); He that is armed with the bow (in the form of Rama); He that is conversant with the science of arms; He that is the rod of chastisement; He that is chastiser; He that executes all sentences of chastisement; He that has never been vanquished; He that is competent in all acts; He that sets all persons to their respective duties; He that has none to set Him to any work; He that has no Yama to slay Him (DCCLVII–DCCCLXVI); He that is endued with heroism and prowess; He that has the attribute of Sattwa (Goodness); He that is identical with Truth; He that is devoted to Truth and Righteousness; He that is sought by those who are resolved to achieve emancipation; (or, He towards whom the universe proceeds when the dissolution comes); He that deserves to have all objects which His worshippers present unto Him; He that is worthy of being adored (with hymns and flowers and other offering of reverence); He that does good to all; He that enhances the delights of all (DCCCLXVII–DCCCLXV); He whose track is through the firmament; He that blazes forth in His own effulgence; He that is endued with great beauty; He that eats the offerings made on the sacrificial fire; He that dwells everywhere and is endued with supreme puissance; He that sucks the moisture of the earth in the form of the Sun; He that has diverse desires; He that brings forth all things; He that is the parent of the universe; He that has the Sun for His eye (DCCCLXXVI–DCCCLXXXV); He that is Infinite; He that accepts all sacrificial offerings; He that enjoys Prakriti in the form of Mind; He that is giver of felicity; He that has taken repeated births (for the protection of righteousness and the righteous); He that is First-born of all existent things; He that transcends despair (in consequence of the fruition of all His wishes); He that forgives the righteous when they trip; He that is the foundation upon which the universe rests; He that is most wonderful (DCCCLXXXVI–DCCCXCV); He that is existent from the beginning of Time; He that has been existing from before the birth of the Grandsire and others; He that is of a tawny hue; (or, He that discovers or illumines all existent things by His rays); He that assumed the form of the great Boar; He that exists even when all things are dissolved; He that is the giver of all blessings; He that creates blessings; He that is identifiable with all blessings; He that enjoys blessings; He that is able to scatter blessings (DCCCXXI–CMV); He that is without wrath; He that lies ensconced in folds (in the form of the snake Sesha); (or, He that is adorned with ear-rings); He that is armed with the discus; He that is endued with great prowess; He whose sway is regulated by the high precepts of the Srutis and the Smritis; He that is incapable of being described by the aid of speech; He whom the Vedantas have striven to express with the aid of speech; He that is the dew which cools those who are afflicted with the three kinds of grief; He that lives in all bodies, endued with the capacity of dispelling darkness (CMVI–CMXIV); He that is divested of wrath; He that is well-skilled in accomplishing all acts by thought, word, and deed; He that can accomplish all acts within the shortest period of time; He that destroys the wicked; He that is the foremost of all forgiving persons; He that is foremost of all persons endued with knowledge; He that transcends all fear; He whose names and feats, heard and recited, lead to Righteousness (CMXV–CMXXII), He that rescues the Righteous from the tempestuous ocean of the world; He that destroys the wicked; He that is Righteousness; He that dispels all evil dreams; He that destroys all bad paths for leading His worshippers to the good path of emancipation; He that protects the universe by staying in the attribute of Sattwa; He that walks along the good path; He that is Life; He that exists overspreading the universe (CMXXIII–CMXXXI); He that is of infinite forms; He that is endued with infinite prosperity; He that has subdued wrath; He that destroys the fears of the righteous; He that gives just fruits, on every side, to sentient beings according to their thoughts and acts; He that is immeasurable Soul; He that bestows diverse kinds of fruits on deserving persons for their diverse acts; He that sets diverse commands (on gods and men); He that attaches to every act its proper fruit (CMXXXII–CMXL); He that has no beginning; He that is the receptacle of all causes as well as of the earth; He that has the goddess of Prosperity ever by his side; He that is the foremost of all heroes; He that is adorned with beautiful armlets; He that produces all creatures; He that is the original cause of the birth of all creatures; He that is the terror of all the wicked Asuras; He that is endued with terrible prowess (CMXLI–CMXLIX); He that is the receptacle and abode of the five primal elements; He that gulps down His throat all creatures at the time of the universal dissolution; He whose smile is as agreeable as the sight of flowers; (or, He who laughs in the form of flowers); He that is always wakeful; He that stays at the head of all creatures; He whose conduct consists of those acts which the Righteous do; He that revives the dead (as in the case of Parikshit and others); He that is the initial syllable Om; He that has ordained all righteous acts (CML–CMLVIII); He that displays the truth about the Supreme Soul; He that is the abode of the five life-breaths and the senses; He that is the food which supports the life of living creatures; He that causes all living creatures to live with the aid of the life-breath called Prana; He that is the great topic of every system of philosophy; He that is the One Soul in the universe; He that transcends birth, decrepitude, and death (CMLIX–CMLXV); He that rescues the universe in consequence of the sacred syllable Bhuh,Bhuvah, Swah, and the others with which Homa offerings are made; He that is the great rescuer; He that is the sire of all; He that is the sire of even the Grandsire (Brahman); He that is of the form of Sacrifice; He that is the Lord of all sacrifices (being the great deity that is adored in them); He that is the sacrificer; He that has sacrifices for his limbs; He that upholds all sacrifices (CMLXXVI–CMLXXXV); He that protects sacrifices; He that has created sacrifices; He that is the foremost of all performers of sacrifices; He that enjoys the rewards of all sacrifices; He that causes the accomplishment of all sacrifices; He that completes all sacrifices by accepting the full libation at the end; He that is identical with such sacrifices as are performed without desire of fruit; He that is the food which sustains all living creatures; He that is also the eater of that food (CMLXXVI–CMLXXXIV); He that is Himself the cause of His existence; He that is self-born; He that penetrated through the solid earth (and repairing to the nether regions slew Hiranyaksha and others); He that sings the Samans; He that is the delighter of Devaki; He that is the creator of all; He that is the Lord of the earth; He that is the destroyer of the sins of his worshippers (CMLXXXV–CMXXCII); He that bears the conch (Panchajanya) in His hands; He that bears the sword of knowledge and illusion; He that sets the cycle of the Yugas to revolve ceaselessly; He that invests Himself with consciousness and senses; He that is endued with the mace of the most solid understanding. He that is armed with a car-wheel; He that is incapable of being agitated; He that is armed with all kinds of weapons (CMXCIII–M). Om, salutations to Him!
‘Even thus have I recited to thee, without any exception, the thousand excellent names of the high-souled Kesava whose glory should always be sung That man who hears the names every day or who recites them every day, never meets with any evil either here or hereafter. If a Brahmana does this he succeeds in mastering the Vedanta; if a Kshatriya does it, he becomes always successful in battle. A Vaisya, by doing it, becomes possessed of affluence, while a Sudra earns great happiness. If one becomes desirous of earning the merit of righteousness, one succeeds in earning it (by hearing or reciting these names). If it is wealth that one desires, one succeeds in earning wealth (by acting in this way). So also the man who wishes for enjoyments of the senses succeeds in enjoying all kinds of pleasures, and the man desirous of offspring acquires offspring (by pursuing this course of conduct). That man who with devotion and perseverance and heart wholly turned towards him, recites these thousand names of Vasudeva every day, after having purified himself, succeeds in acquiring great fame, a position of eminence among his kinsmen, enduring prosperity, and lastly, that which is of the highest benefit to him (viz., emancipation itself). Such a man never meets with fear at any time, and acquires great prowess and energy. Disease never afflicts him; splendour of complexion, strength, beauty, and accomplishments become his. The sick become hale, the afflicted become freed from their afflictions; the affrighted become freed from fear, and he that is plunged in calamity becomes freed from calamity. The man who hymns the praises of that foremost of Beings by reciting His thousand names with devotion succeeds in quickly crossing all difficulties. That mortal who takes refuge in Vasudeva and who becomes devoted to Him, becomes freed of all sins and attains to eternal Brahma. They who are devoted to Vasudeva have never to encounter any evil. They become freed from the fear of birth, death, decrepitude, and disease. That man who with devotion and faith recites this hymn (consisting of the thousand names of Vasudeva) succeeds in acquiring felicity of soul, forgiveness of disposition, Prosperity, intelligence, memory, and fame. Neither wrath, nor jealousy, nor cupidity, nor evil understanding ever appears in those men of righteousness who are devoted to that foremost of beings. The firmament with the sun, moon and stars, the welkin, the points of the compass, the earth and the ocean, are all held and supported by the prowess of the high-souled Vasudeva. The whole mobile and immobile universe with the deities, Asuras, and Gandharvas, Yakshas, Uragas and Rakshasas, is under the sway of Krishna. The senses, mind, understanding, life, energy, strength and memory, it has been said, have Vasudeva for their soul. Indeed, this body that is called Kshetra, and the intelligent soul within, that is called the knower of Kshetra, also have Vasudeva for their soul. Conduct (consisting of practices) is said to be the foremost of all topics treated of in the scriptures. Righteousness has conduct for its basis. The unfading Vasudeva is said to be the lord of righteousness. The Rishis, the Pitris, the deities, the great (primal) elements, the metals, indeed, the entire mobile and immobile universe, has sprung from Narayana. Yoga, the Sankhya Philosophy, knowledge, all mechanical arts, the Vedas, the diverse scriptures, and all learning, have sprung from Janardana. Vishnu is the one great element or substance which has spread itself out into multifarious forms. Covering the three worlds, He the soul of all things, enjoys them all. His glory knows no diminution, and He it is that is the Enjoyer of the universe (as its Supreme Lord). This hymn in praise of the illustrious Vishnu composed by Vyasa, should be recited by that person who wishes to acquire happiness and that which is the highest benefit (viz., emancipation). Those persons that worship and adore the Lord of the universe, that deity who is inborn and possessed of blazing effulgence, who is the origin or cause of the universe, who knows on deterioration, and who is endued with eyes that are as large and beautiful as the petals of the lotus, have never to meet with any discomfiture.’”
327:1 The Hindu sages never attempt to speculate on the original creation of the universe. Their speculations, however, are concerned with what is called Avantara srishti or that creation which springs forth with the awakening of Brahman. Creation and Destruction have occurred ceaselessly and will occur ceaselessly. The original creation is impossible to conceive as Eternity cannot have a beginning.
328:1 Putatman means, of cleansed Soul. This implies that though He is the Lord or ruler of all existent objects, yet He is dissociated from them The Refuge of the Emancipated–Comp. Gita, ‘Mamupetya tu Kaunteya punarjanma na vidyate,’ etc., Purusha is He that lies in a pura or the nine-doored mansion, i.e., the body. Sakshi or Witness implies that He sees all things directly, without any medium obstructing His vision. Kshetrajna implies the Chit lying within the body and who knows the body; however, being inert, is not cognisant of the Chit it holds.
328:2 He is called Yoga because of the mind resting upon Him while it is in Yoga abstraction. Pradhana, in Sankhyaphilosophy, is another name of Prakriti or original Nature. All things have sprung from the union of Prakriti andPurusha. Vasudeva, however, transcends Prakriti and Purusha and is their Lord. Narasinghavapu–He assumed the human form with a lion’s head for slaying the Asura Hiranyakasipu, the father of Prahlada.
328:3 Sarva implies the source of all existent and non-existent things and that in which all existent and non-existent things become merged at the universal dissolution. Sambhava signifies Him who takes birth at His own will. Acts cannot touch him. The birth of all other beings is determined by their acts in previous lives. Com. Gita, Paritranaya sadhunam etc. sambhavami yuge yuge. Bhuvana means one who attaches to acts their respective fruits i.e., he in consequence of whom the weal and woe of all creatures flow as due to acts.
328:4 Sambhu implies one whose birth has not been determined by extraneous circumstances, or other influences than his own wish, the birth of all other creatures being determined by forces extraneous to themselves. Aditya may also mean the foremost one among the deities especially called the Adityas. They are twelve in number. Dhatri p. 329 may also imply one who upholds everything in the universe by multiplying Himself infinitely. Dhaturuttama may, besides, signify one who as Chit is superior to all elements like Earth, Water, etc., which constitute all that is not-Chit.
329:1 Aprameya is, literally, immeasurable. Sankara thus explains it: He has no such attributes as sound, etc; in consequence of this He is not an object of direct perception by the sense; nor can He be an object of inference, in consequence of there being nothing to which belong the same attributes as His, etc. His inconceivability is the foundation of His immeasurableness. Hrishikesa is regarded by European scholars as a doubtful word. The Hindu commentators do not regard it so. It implies the lord of the senses i.e., One who has his sense under complete control. Or, it may mean One who sways the sense of others, i.e., causes them to exercise their functions. Sankara proposes another meaning, viz. He that is the form of the Sun or the Moon and as such, the rays of light emanating from those luminaries and gladdening all creatures, are the hairs on His head. Manu is another name for Mantra or sacred words having great efficacy.
329:2 Krishna is one of the foremost names of the supreme God-head. It means One who is always in transports of joy. It is derived from krish which implies to be, and na meaning final Emancipation or cessation of existence; the compound probably means One in whom every attribute has been extinguished; hence, absence of change, of sorrow, of gift, etc., or, eternal and highest joy. Lohitaksha is Red-eyed, from His eyes being of the hue of polished copper.Pratardana, according to Sankara, means the killer of all creatures. Others take it as implying one who destroys the cheerlessness of his worshippers. Prabhuta is One who is Great or Vast in consequence of Knowledge, Puissance, Energy, and Renunciation, etc.; Pavitram, Mangalam, Param should be taken as one name, although each of them has a separate meaning.
329:3 Pranada is interpreted variously. It may mean He that causes the life-breaths to operate; He that, as Time suspends the life-breaths (i.e., kills all creatures); He that connects the life-breaths (i.e., set them a-going when threatened with extinction; hence, healer of diseases). Prana implies He who is the cause of the life of every living creature being Himself, as it were, the life-breath that inspires them. Hiranyagarbha signifies He that is identical with the Grandsire. Bhugarbha is one who has the Earth for his abdomen, implying that all things on Earth are in His abdomen.
330:1 Atmavan, other Beings are said to be Sariravan, Indriyavan, etc., in consequence of the possession of such attributes as Sarira, Indriya, etc. But the Supreme God-head is nothing but soul. He rests on his own true nature or essence without requiring anything extraneous like the deities or human beings whereon to live or exist,
330:2 Aha is the day; He is so called because of Jiva being, as it were, awakened when he goes to Him. As long as Jivais at a distance from Him, he is steeped in the sleep of Avidya or Nescience (a happy word which Professor Max Muller has coined) Samvatsara or the year He is so called because Time is His essence. Vyala–He is a huge and fierce snake that inspires dread.
330:3 Vrishakapi is otherwise explained by Valadeva Vidyabhushan, as He that showers blessings upon His worshippers and causes all His foes to tremble with fear.
338:1 Vishnu is supposed to be within the constellation called Sisumara or the Northern Bear. The stars, without changing their places per se, seem to revolve round this point within the constellation named.
338:2 In India, no man should worship the deities, with a full stomach. Indeed, one must abstain from every kind of food and drink if one has to worship the deities formally.
340:1 Rama of Bhrigu’s race went to Mahadeva for acquiring the science of arms. While dwelling in Siva’s retreat, he had a quarrel with Karttikeya or Kumara, the son of Siva’s loins. Rama worsted his preceptor’s son in battle, at which his preceptor, gratified with him, made him a present of his own battle-axe, wherewith the regenerate here exterminated the Kshatriyas for full one and twenty times.
342:1 Many of these words beginning with Mahat represent Krishna’s own words as spoken to Arjuna in the Gita. ‘I am the foremost of sacrifices; I am the foremost of sacrificers,’ etc.
343:1 Referring to Hanumat and others among the apes that Rama led against Ravana.
343:2 The universe consists of Soul and Not-soul. Jiva, when cased in matter or Not-soul takes Not-soul for himself, in his ignorance. In fact until true knowledge is attained, the body is taken for self.
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